Genome Sequencing for Early-Onset or Atypical Dementia: High Diagnostic Yield and Frequent Observation of Multiple Contributory Alleles

We assessed the results of genome sequencing for early-onset dementia. Participants were selected from a memory disorders clinic. Genome sequencing was performed along with C9orf72 repeat expansion testing. All returned sequencing results were Sanger-validated. Prior clinical diagnoses included Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, and unspecified dementia. The mean age of onset was 54 (41-76). Fifty percent of patients had a strong family history, 37.5% had some, and 12.5% had no known family history. Nine of 32 patients (28%) had a variant defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards, including variants in APPC9orf72CSF1R, and MAPT Nine patients (including three with P/LP variants) harbored established risk alleles with moderate penetrance (odds ratios of ∼2-5) in ABCA7AKAP9GBAPLD3SORL1, and TREM2 All six patients harboring these moderate penetrance variants but not P/LP variants also had one or two APOE ε4 alleles. One patient had two APOE ε4 alleles with no other established contributors. In total, 16 patients (50%) harbored one or more genetic variants likely to explain symptoms. We identified variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) in ABI3ADAM10ARSAGRID2IPMMENOTCH3PLCD1PSEN1TM2D3TNK1TTC3, and VPS13C, also often along with other variants. In summary, genome sequencing for early-onset dementia frequently identified multiple established or possible contributory alleles. These observations add support for an oligogenic model for early-onset dementia.

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