Applying whole-genome sequencing in relation to phenotype and outcomes in siblings with cystic fibrosis


Variations in disease onset and/or severity have often been observed in siblings with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite the same CFTR genotype and environment. We postulated that genomic variation (modifier and/or pharmacogenomic variants) might explain these clinical discordances. From a cohort of patients included in the Wisconsin randomized clinical trial (RCT) of newborn screening (NBS) for CF, we identified two brothers who showed discordant lung disease courses as children, with one milder and the other more severe than average, and a third, eldest brother, who also has severe lung disease. Leukocytes were harvested as the source of DNA, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed. Variants were identified and analyzed using in-house-developed informatics tools. Lung disease onset and severity were quantitatively different between brothers during childhood. The youngest, less severely affected brother is homozygous for HFE p.H63D. He also has a very rare PLG p.D238N variant that may influence host–pathogen interaction during chronic lung infection. Other variants of interest were found differentially between the siblings. Pharmacogenomics findings were consistent with the middle, most severely affected brother having poor outcomes to common CF treatments. We conclude that genomic variation between siblings with CF is expected. Variable lung disease severity may be associated with differences acting as genetic modifiers and/or pharmacogenomic factors, but large cohort studies are needed to assess this hypothesis.

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Genome Sequencing for Early-Onset or Atypical Dementia: High Diagnostic Yield and Frequent Observation of Multiple Contributory Alleles

We assessed the results of genome sequencing for early-onset dementia. Participants were selected from a memory disorders clinic. Genome sequencing was performed along with C9orf72 repeat expansion testing. All returned sequencing results were Sanger-validated. Prior clinical diagnoses included Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, and unspecified dementia. The mean age of onset was 54 (41-76). Fifty percent of patients had a strong family history, 37.5% had some, and 12.5% had no known family history. Nine of 32 patients (28%) had a variant defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards, including variants in APPC9orf72CSF1R, and MAPT Nine patients (including three with P/LP variants) harbored established risk alleles with moderate penetrance (odds ratios of ∼2-5) in ABCA7AKAP9GBAPLD3SORL1, and TREM2 All six patients harboring these moderate penetrance variants but not P/LP variants also had one or two APOE ε4 alleles. One patient had two APOE ε4 alleles with no other established contributors. In total, 16 patients (50%) harbored one or more genetic variants likely to explain symptoms. We identified variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) in ABI3ADAM10ARSAGRID2IPMMENOTCH3PLCD1PSEN1TM2D3TNK1TTC3, and VPS13C, also often along with other variants. In summary, genome sequencing for early-onset dementia frequently identified multiple established or possible contributory alleles. These observations add support for an oligogenic model for early-onset dementia.

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VarSight: prioritizing clinically reported variants with binary classification algorithms



When applying genomic medicine to a rare disease patient, the primary goal is to identify one or more genomic variants that may explain the patient’s phenotypes. Typically, this is done through annotation, filtering, and then prioritization of variants for manual curation. However, prioritization of variants in rare disease patients remains a challenging task due to the high degree of variability in phenotype presentation and molecular source of disease. Thus, methods that can identify and/or prioritize variants to be clinically reported in the presence of such variability are of critical importance.


We tested the application of classification algorithms that ingest variant annotations along with phenotype information for predicting whether a variant will ultimately be clinically reported and returned to a patient. To test the classifiers, we performed a retrospective study on variants that were clinically reported to 237 patients in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network.


We treated the classifiers as variant prioritization systems and compared them to four variant prioritization algorithms and two single-measure controls. We showed that the trained classifiers outperformed all other tested methods with the best classifiers ranking 72% of all reported variants and 94% of reported pathogenic variants in the top 20.


We demonstrated how freely available binary classification algorithms can be used to prioritize variants even in the presence of real-world variability. Furthermore, these classifiers outperformed all other tested methods, suggesting that they may be well suited for working with real rare disease patient datasets.

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Risk-factors Associated With Poor Outcomes in VEO-IBD Secondary to XIAP Deficiency: A Case Report and Literature Review

Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge. Here we present a case of VEO-IBD secondary to a mutation in BIRC4 gene, which encodes X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), in a 17-month-old boy with severe failure to thrive, intractable diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly. Endoscopy and histology identified only mild duodenitis and ileitis, but severe pancolitis with crypt abscesses and epithelium apoptosis. Minimal improvement in symptoms was achieved with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), intravenous (IV) corticosteroids, and tacrolimus, whereas induction and maintenance therapy with adalimumab led to complete remission. After 6 months, the patient developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and eventually died due to multisystem organ failure. A review of the literature revealed that some patients with VEO-IBD secondary to XIAP deficiency develop symptoms that are refractory to medical and surgical management, while initial reports suggest that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with reduced intensity conditioning, can successfully induce long-lasting remission and may even be curative. We propose that in patients with XIAP deficiency a constellation of symptoms including colitis at an early age, severe failure to thrive, and splenomegaly/hepatosplenomegaly can identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of experiencing medically refractory IBD phenotype and increased mortality. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant should be considered early in these high-risk patients, as it may resolve both their intestinal inflammation and a risk of developing life threatening hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis .

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