- Candida auris: A multi-drug resistant pathogen
Candida auris is an emerging pathogen that results in nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health problem. It was first observed as a novel Candida species in 2009 and has been isolated in 35 countries.
C. auris may cause invasive infections associated with high mortality. It is considered a multi-drug resistant species, having variable resistance patterns to many typical antifungal agents used to treat other Candida infections.
The CDC is concerned about C. auris for three main reasons:
- It is often multidrug-resistant, meaning that it is resistant to multiple antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. Some strains are resistant to all three available classes of antifungals.
- It is difficult to identify with standard laboratory methods, and it can be misidentified in labs without specific technology. Misidentification may lead to inappropriate management.
- It has caused outbreaks in healthcare settings. For this reason, it is important to quickly identify C. auris in a hospitalized patient so that healthcare facilities can take special precautions to stop its spread.
Join our webinar on Candida auris by Dr. Rachael Lee and Ms. Mary Duncan on March 10,2023 presented by the Alabama Regional Center for Infection Prevention and Control Training and Technical Assistance.
Resources for Candida auris:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/candida-auris-qanda.html
- Multi-lingual fact sheets on Candida auris by the CDC: contains information on Candida auris.what we need to know, cases over time and global threat of the disease in languages such as English, Spanish, Vietnamese, Korean and Haitian – Candida auris: A multi-drug resistant pathogen
- Infection Prevention and Control for Candida auris: contains infection prevention guidelines and transmission based precaution – https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/c-auris-infection-control.html
- Candida Auris toolkit: This toolkit includes a set of resources that your facility can utilize to detect, manage and control Candida auris and to communicate C. auris information to other healthcare providers, patients and families – https://hip.phila.gov/disease-control/healthcare-associated-infections-antibiotic-resistance/candida-auris-toolkit/
- National Notifiable Disease Surveillance system tracking as per number of cases by state in the U.S – https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/fact-sheets/index.html
- Strategies to Prevent Transmission of Candida auris in Healthcare Settings – https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12281-023-00451-7
For Healthcare Providers:
- Treatment and management of Candida auris infection and colonization – https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/c-auris-treatment.html
- What You Should Know About the 2022 Monkeypox Outbreak
From early May 2022 to June 13, 2022 (the date of this podcast recording), over 1,300 confirmed cases of monkeypox have been reported across 31 countries that normally don’t see any cases of monkeypox. Occasionally, outbreaks have occurred outside Africa. But, in most instances, these cases were associated with international travel or contact with individuals or animals from endemic regions. Currently, the CDC and World Health Organization are tracking multiple reported cases and monitoring several person in counties without endemic monkeypox and with no known travel links to an endemic area.
In today’s podcast, we welcome back Dr. Rachael Lee, Associate Professor in the UAB Division of Infectious Diseases and UAB Health Epidemiologist to talk to us about monkeypox – what it is and if we should be worried?
Thank you to our co-sponsor for this podcast, the Alabama Public Health Training Network at the Alabama Department of Public Health a community-based training partner of the Region IV Public Health Training Center.
- ADPH Resources – https://www.alabamapublichealth.gov/monkeypox/resources.html
- CDC 2022 Monkeypox and Orthopoxvirus Outbreak Global Map – https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/response/2022/world-map.html
- CDC 2022 U.S. Monkeypox Cases – https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/index.html
- World Health Organization – https://www.who.int/health-topics/monkeypox
For Healthcare Providers:
- CDC – Information for Healthcare Providers – https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/clinicians/index.html
- CDC – Updated Case-finding Guidance: Monkeypox Outbreak—United States, 2022 – https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2022/han00468.asp (6.14.22)
- AP: UK reports 104 more cases of monkeypox, mostly in men – https://apnews.com/article/health-united-nations-england-world-organization-2d45ed6078895dd6a012a1b3555ee3b5 (6.13.22 Published)
- Centers for Infectious Disease Research and Policy – https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2022/06/uk-reports-194-more-monkeypox-cases-us-total-hits-49 (6.13.22 Published)
- Hepatitis Outbreak in Children
The State of Alabama has had a lot of firsts; the first open-heart surgery in the Western Hemisphere was performed in Montgomery in 1902, in 1968 the first 911 call was placed from Haleyville, AL, and unfortunately in 2021 amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic Alabama identified their first case of a new Hepatitis outbreak among children under the age of 10. Children in Alabama began to fall ill with symptoms of Hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver that can cause jaundice, fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and more symptoms. Despite the mysterious onset and widespread unconnected cases under investigation doctors and other researchers are still trying to pin down the direct cause. The onset of symptoms has not been shown to be related to COVID-19 or its vaccinations, as once thought could be the case. Now, research points to the outbreak possibly being related to a new adenovirus strain. As of June 1, 2022, the outbreak and cause are still under investigation, with 246 cases under investigation of children under the age of ten showing symptoms of hepatitis with an unknown cause across 38 different states with 6 deaths since October 2021. Unfortunately, as is frequently the case with outbreaks, cases have been seen beyond the borders of Alabama or the United States where it started, with cases of hepatitis with an unknown cause among children being reported across the globe with roughly 650 cases spread across 33 different countries. Doctors and researchers are working to determine the cause of the outbreak in order to curb the case count, but until then check out our podcast and the resources below to help you stay informed on the latest happenings in Infection Prevention and Control.
Listen to a podcast from Dr. Wes Stubblefield, District Medical Officer for the Northern and Northeastern Public Health Districts at the Alabama Department of Public Health on this recent outbreak of pediatric hepatitis.
- From ADPH: Hepatitis A Outbreak
- From the CDC: Acute Hepatitis and Adenovirus Infection Among Children — Alabama, October 2021–February 2022
- From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Red Book Online Outbreaks: Hepatitis Cases Possibly Associated with Adenoviral Infection
- From Science: Mysterious hepatitis outbreak sickens young children in Europe as CDC probes cases in Alabama
- From the WHO: Acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children – Multi-country
- From the CDC: What Parents Should Know About the Current Investigation of Hepatitis of Unknown Cause in Children
- KidsHealth: Hepatitis
- Columbia: Hepatitis Outbreak Among Kids: What Parents Should Know
- Northshore: A Global Hepatitis Outbreak in Children: What Parents Need to Know
- Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: Hepatitis A Resources
- CNBC: CDC says adenovirus may have caused Alabama outbreak of severe hepatitis in children
- UAB News: New adenovirus strain potentially linked to pediatric hepatitis outbreak in Alabama
- Forbes: Hepatitis Outbreak: Alabama Cases Linked To Common Virus May Provide Clue
- US News & World Report: Alabama Cases of Acute Hepatitis in Kids Show Link to Viruses: CDC
- WSFA 12: CDC says adenovirus may have caused outbreak of severe hepatitis in children
- NBC: CDC report finds no Covid link in children’s hepatitis cases in Alabama